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sakurajima 1914 eruption

This inclusion is not surprising when considering that the name of the island can be broken down into sakura, meaning "cherry," and jima, meaning "island" (Stewart, 1979, p. 162). Sakurajima (Japanese: 桜島 , literally Cherry blossom Island) is an active stratovolcano, formerly an island and now a peninsula, in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. However, the main crop was shifted to satsuma (mikan) from Sakurajima radishes, because the area of Sakurajima suffered so much damage from a 1914 eruption of the nearby volcano, decreasing the growing area to about 30 hectares (74 acres) by 1955. [21], On 18 August 2013, the volcano erupted from Showa crater and produced its highest recorded plume of ash since 2006, rising 5,000 metres high and causing darkness and significant ash falls on the central part of Kagoshima city. During the last stages of the eruption, emptying of the underlying magma chamber sank the centre of the Aira Caldera by about 60 cm (24 in). [7] Several hundred cubic kilometres of ash and pumice were ejected, causing the magma chamber underneath the erupting vents to collapse. The lava flows of the 1914 eruption connected it with the Ōsumi Peninsula. [12], The 1914 eruption began on January 11. Sakurajima was also the name of Japanese singer Tsuyoshi Nagabuchi's song. This shows that images of the eruption were being produced long after its occurrence. A news report photo from August 18, 2013 captures local citizens going about their daily lives despite a recent spewing of volcanic ash from Sakurajima. In both cases, the way in which Sakurajima is depicted has been carefully considered and tailored so as to engage the interest of the viewer in a specific manner. [16], Sakurajima is part of the Kirishima-Yaku National Park, and its lava flows are a major tourist attraction. Lava flows filled the narrow strait between the island and the mainland, turning it into a peninsula. Hiroshige's print serves a similar purpose of distributing a view of the island on a broad scale to people who have no way of knowing whether the illustration he provides is accurate. In the ensuing days large earthquakes occurred which resulted in Sakurajima emptying its … Sakurajima (Japanese: 桜島, literally "Cherry blossom Island") is an active composite volcano and a former island in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Several hundred cubic kilometres of ash and pumice were ejected, causing the magma chamber underneath the erupting vents to collapse. (Thankfully the residents had enough warning to get out of the way in time.) In both the lantern slide and Hiroshige's print, we can detect a tailoring of the composition toward a glossing over or alteration of the reality of Sakurajima. The volcano had been dormant for over a century until 1914. The depiction of cherry blossoms in this print demonstrates Hiroshige's use of artistic license in representing Sakurajima according to its name rather than its actual environment. Japanese Lantern Slides from the E. Raymond Wilson Collection. While the 1914 eruption has yet to be equaled in its fervor since its occurrence, the memory of the tragic event looms over people currently living in the shadow of Sakurajima. Parts of Kagoshima Bay became significantly shallower, and it made tides higher.[7]. [8] It is about 8 km (5 mi) south of the centre of the caldera. (1979). Sakurajima is one of the world's most active volcanoes, erupting over 500 times in the past year alone (Oskin, 2013). [19], In 2011 and 2012, Sakurajima experienced several significant eruptions; volcanic activity continued into 2013. (2013, August 19). stratovolcano 1117 m / 3,665 ft Kyushu, Japan, 31.59°N / 130.66°E Current status: erupting (4 out of 5) Sakurajima webcams / live data | Reports Volcano videos Books Sakurajima volcano eruptions: Entitled "Ōsumi Province: Sakura-jima," the print shows Kagoshima bay with numerous boats from which Sakurajima majestically arises. [29], This article is about the volcano. Scientists warned that a major eruption could soon take place at the volcano;[24] it eventually did erupt around 20:00 on 5 February 2016. 2020. Sakurajima used to be an island but lava flows the 1914 eruption plugged the channel with lava, joining Sakurajima to the mainland of Kyushu. The view of the island provided by the lantern slide appears to be taken from this coast. On September 13, 2016 a team of experts from Bristol University and the Sakurajima Volcano Research Centre in Japan suggested that the volcano could have a major eruption within 30 years; since then two eruptions have occurred.[5]. [18], An eruption occurred from the Minami-dake summit crater at 5:38 on Sunday, August 9th, 2010, sending debris up to 5000 m (16,000 ft). Sakurajima is used as the title of a 1946 short story, written by the Japanese writer Haruo Umezaki, about a disillusioned Navy officer stationed on the volcano island towards the end of World War II as American air force planes bomb Japan. [20] (2013). InstitutionSwarthmore CollegePeace Collectionspcjls133. A guide to Japanese prints and their subject matter. The recent eruption was on 17 December 2020, Sakurajima from a ferry in Kagoshima Bay, 2019-07-01. Fortunately, earthquakes leading up to the eruption signaled its coming, and local people had time to evacuate the island and much of the surrounding area before the eruption took place. (2006, April). Before 1955, the volcano exploded every few hundred years, blasting in 1471, in 1779 and in 1914, for example. Kita-dake is Sakurajima's highest peak, rising to 1,117 m (3,665 ft) above sea level. 1971 Eruptions Lava lakes were visible in two craters at Sakurajima. [15], In light of the dangers it presents to nearby populations, Sakurajima was designated a Decade Volcano in 1991, identifying it as worthy of particular study as part of the United Nations' International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. photo, caption -- Kagoshima after Sakurashima eruption, "The Sakura-Jima Eruption of January, 1914", "Sakurajima, Japan's Most Active Volcano", "New data points to major eruption of Japanese volcano", "The 1914 Sakurajima explosion at Volcanoworld", "Sakurajima at the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo", "Forecasting volcanic activity of Sakurajima", "Japan's Sakurajima volcano due for major eruption within 30 years, say scientists", "Japanese Volcanoes at the Northern Illinois University", "Reuters report on Sakurajima explosion, June 5th 2006", "Decade Volcano Sakurajima at the Earthquake Research Institute", "Volcanic activity world-wide 16 November 2012: Ruapehu, Paluweh, Michael, Kilauea, Fuego, Santiaguito, Nevado del Ruiz, Reventador, Sakurajima, Mammoth Mountain (Long Valley),Ambrym, Nyiragongo", "Sakurajima spews its highest volcanic column ever at 5,000 meters", "Volcano alerts issued in Ecuador, Japan", "Sakurajima in Japan Might Be Headed Towards a Large Eruption", "Volcanic activity worldwide 4 Apr 2016: Popocatépetl volcano, Bromo, Turrialba, Sangay, Sakurajima,...", "Kagoshima's Sakurajima volcano erupts, spews plume 5,000 meters up", "Sakurajima Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: ERUPTED AT 20201003/0735Z FL100 STNR OBS VA DTG: 03/0730Z", "Seismographs at the Panama-Pacific Exposition,", Sakurajima: Maintaining an island essence, Sakurajima: National catalogue of the active volcanoes in Japan, Aira / Sakurajima, Global Volcanic Program, Schoolchildren in Kagoshima wearing helmets to protect against stones thrown out by the nearby Sakurajima volcano (which is in background), Schoolchildren and their teacher wearing helmets, Google Earth ground view approaching Sakurajima from the mainland, Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) (entry for Aira /Sakurajima), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sakurajima&oldid=995311500, Wikidata value to be checked for Infobox mountain, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from May 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The mountain is in a part of Kagoshima Bay known as Kinkō-wan. A woodblock print by the renowned nineteenth-century woodblock artist Utagawa Hiroshige from his series "Famous Places in the Sixty-odd Provinces" illustrates the traditional iconography associated with the island. Earlier eruptions built the white sand highlands in the region. Sakurajima was formed by later activity within the caldera, beginning about 13,000 years ago. [7] The eruption partly inspired a 1914 movie, The Wrath of the Gods, centering on a family curse that ostensibly causes the eruption. The volcanic activity still continues, dropping large amounts of volcanic ash on the surroundings. [17], On 10 March 2009, Sakurajima erupted, sending debris up to 2 km (1.2 mi). The 1914 Taisho eruption of Sakurijima volcano was Japan’s highest intensity and magnitude eruption of the twentieth century. Lava flows are rare in Japan—because the silica content of the magmas is high, explosive eruptions are far more common[14]—but the lava flows at Sakurajima continued for months. [7] While this may seem nonsensical, we must take into account the fact that in the Japanese landscape tradition, reality often takes a backseat to collective associations of place with culturally and artistically significant imagery. As the hundredth anniversary of this eruption approaches, the volcano becomes increasingly volatile. The last time Sakurajima erupted was in 1914 and it killed 58 people. [22], In August 2015, Japan's meteorological agency issued a level 4 emergency warning, which urges residents to prepare to evacuate. The story is based on Umezaki's own experience; he was stationed in a military cipher base in the nearby Prefecture city of Kagoshima. On January 11, 1914, the volcano began violently erupting. Still, it is estimated that up to 140 people died as a result of the eruption itself and corresponding earthquakes, landslides, and building collapses (Siebert, Simkin, & Kimberly, 2011, p. 338). In Encyclopædia Britannica Online. In the lantern slide, a broad landscape perspective does not engage the devastation that the depicted eruption caused. Sakurajima volcano (Japan): news & eruption updates. After a 35-year period of quiescence, the volcano suddenly rewoke a few days before the eruption, when earthquakes began to be felt on Sakurajima Island. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. It was the most powerful in twentieth-century Japan. LiveScience.com. [10], Volcanic activity at Kita-dake ended around 4,900 years ago: later eruptions have been centered on Minami-dake. Sakurajima was formed by later activity within the caldera, beginning about 13,000 years ago. [9] Most of its eruptions are strombolian,[9] affecting only the summit areas, but larger plinian eruptions have occurred in 1471–1476, 1779–1782 and 1914. Sakurajima … The 1914 eruption, which killed 58 people, produced 0.3 cubic miles of lava flow. Plumes The Sakurajima volcano is known to produce plumes of ash in conjunction with clearly visible electrical discharges, known as … The most notable aspect of the print is the abundance of cherry blossoms that appear in the valleys and ridges of the island. 1946 Eruption The eruption of Sakurajima volcano in 1946 produced a crater on the eastern flan k at 800 m elevation. The lava flows of the 1914 eruption caused the former island to be connected with the Osumi Peninsula. The volcano sits on the southern edge of the Aira caldera, the circular water-filled hole that formed on the north side of Kagoshima Bay in an eruption 22,000 years ago. Sakurajima was joined to the mainland by the deposition of volcanic material following a major eruption in 1914. Sakurajima is located in the Aira caldera, formed in an enormous eruption 22,000 years ago. We can imagine how living with the continual prospect of disaster affects daily consciousness in Japan. Some years it erupts over 1,000 times and this bad-tempered beast is just eight kilometers from the 600,000 residents of Kagoshima. Today, if you were to visit Sakurajima, you would be hard-pressed to find a single cherry tree on the entire island. The lava flows of the 1914 eruption connected it with the Ōsumi Peninsula. During an eruption in 1914 Sakurajima was transformed from an island to a peninsula. A volcanic ash advisory for aviation was issued by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) at 0743 UTC, showing the ash cloud to be stationary and reaching FL100 (10,000 feet). Major eruptions. The eruption buried the gate with volcanic ash. The lava flow was so large that it connected Sakurajima, previously an island, to the nearby coast, which suffered extensively from earthquake damage ("Kagoshima," 2013). However, we can see the debris falling out as the wind blows it toward the left side of the picture frame. [26] Then, three months later, on July 26, it spewed volcanic ash 5,000 m (16,000 ft) into the air. The island grew, engulfing several smaller islands nearby, and eventually became connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. Almost all residents had left the island in the previous days; several large earthquakes had warned them that an eruption was imminent. Sakurajima's last deadly eruption was in 1914, when 58 people died. Sakurajima makes a perfect day trip from pretty much anywhere in Kyushu. It is the most active volcano in Japan. Sakurajima is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Prior to this eruption, Sakurajima had been dormant for over a century. [23] An eruption had been expected following a series of smaller explosions over the weekend. On January 12, 1914 Sakurajima erupted in what was the most powerful eruption to hit Japan in the 20th century. Sakura-jima formed an island until 1914, when an explosive eruption produced enough material to join the island to the peninsula on the east. Lava flows filled the narrow strait between the island and the mainland, turning it into a peninsula. [3] It is the most active volcano in Japan. Sakurajima Yogan Nagisa Park and Foot Spa is a free hot spring foot bath near the ferry port, where you can soak your feet while looking at the volcano. ... which is the memorial day for the devastating eruption of 1914. An enormous lava flow that destroyed surrounding homes and villages was accompanied by a massive earthquake and further devastation. [28], Its last eruption was on October 3, 2020. Nevertheless, people still refer to Sakurajima as an island and after 1914, it still bears the same name with the same -jima suffix, meaning ‘island’ in Japanese. Head to the Sakurajima Lava Nagisa Park and its 100-meter-long thermal tub used for footbaths. Thousands of small explosions happen each year, throwing ash to heights of up to a few kilometers above the mountain. Sakurajima's last deadly eruption was in 1914, when 58 people died. Casey Lee, CC BY-SA 2.0 Retrieved from http://www.swarthmore.edu/library/peace/LanternSlides/Lantern SlideIntro.htm, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/309616/Kagoshima?anchor=ref195410, http://www.livescience.com/38999-500th-eruption-why-japan-s-sakurajima-volcano-is-so-active.html, http://www.swarthmore.edu/library/peace/LanternSlides/Lantern SlideIntro.htm. Sakurajima is a modern active vent of the same Aira caldera volcano. The Sakurajima Volcano Observatory was set up in 1960 to monitor these eruptions. Sakurajima's activity became more prominent in 1955, and the volcano has been erupting almost constantly ever since. The northernmost crater, Kita-dake, last erupted approximately 5,000 years ago; to the south, Minami-dake and Showa craters have been the site of frequent eruptions since at least the eighth century. Kagoshima. Sakurajima is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan with major eruptions in 1914 and 1947. For its eponymous giant white radish, see, View of Sakurajima from mainland Kagoshima, 2009. [6] The surface of this volcanic peninsula is about 77 km2 (30 sq mi). Explosive activity continues. Its last really big eruption was in 1914, when it spewed out lava for months on end, destroying hundreds of homes. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/38999-500th-eruption-why-japan-s-sakurajima-volcano-is-so-active.html. It is the most active volcano in Japan. Tephra fell as far as 1,000 km (620 mi) from the volcano. The most recent eruption started on November 12, 2019. It makes sense that such an image would be absent of any real indications of the suffering and destruction caused by the eruption. Private Sightseeing Flight. [9], Monitoring of the volcano and predictions of large eruptions are particularly important because it is in a densely populated area, with the city of Kagoshima's 680,000 residents just a few kilometers from the volcano. [2] The lava flows of the 1914 eruption connected it with the Ōsumi Peninsula. The eruption occurred at 16:31 and was the 500th eruption of the year. The day before the eruption most of the residents had fled, due to several large earthquakes, warning them that the once-dormant volcano was about to erupt. Tephra fell as far as 1000 km from the volcano. The shrine gate is located at the northeast of Sakurajima. The 1914 eruption was the most powerful in twentieth-century Japan. [7] This showed that Sakurajima draws its magma from the same magma reservoir that fed the ancient caldera-forming eruption. Located in the Pacific "Ring of Fire," Sakurajima coughs up ash daily and … Sakurajima (Japanese: 桜島, literally "Cherry Blossom Island") is an active stratovolcano, formerly an island and now a peninsula, in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. It does not appear that any of the buildings in the foreground have suffered structural damage. Stewart, B. Major historical eruptions occurred in 1471-76, 1779, 1914-15, and 1946. Additionally, the somewhat intact shape of the billowing cloud of volcanic ash indicates that this image was probably captured toward the beginning of the eruption. [27], On 3 October 2020, at 0735 UTC, the volcano erupted once again, this time from the Aira caldera. Sakurajima (Japanese: 桜島, literally "Cherry Blossom Island") is an active stratovolcano, formerly an island and now a peninsula, in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. The volcano had been dormant for over a century until 1914.The 1914 eruption began on January 11. Yet while the name "Cherry Island" suggests an abundance of cherry blossoms, the reality of Sakurajima's environment contradicts this association. Volcanoes of the world (3rd ed.). [7] It lies about 8 km sou… Yoder, A. THE HISTORY OF SAKURAJIMA'S ERUPTIONS Sakurajima is one of Japan's most active volcanoes with small, localised eruptions nearly every day. Its first eruption in recorded history was in 963 AD. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 8000 ft (2400 m) altitude or flight level 080 and is moving at 10 kts in SE direction. In 2017, volcanic smoke rose from Sakurajima’s craters over a thousand times and there were 406 eruptions, of which 81 were registered as “explosive eruptions” accompanied by tremors and … The eruption that occurred in 1914 and 1915 was the most violent volcanic eruption in Japan since the country began keeping historical records. We can thus interpret this image as portraying the 1914 eruption in a way that was attractive and interesting to tourists visiting Sakurajima years later. After the concert, a statue showing Nagabuchi screaming with a guitar was installed on the site of the concert. Don’t miss the shrine gate at Kurokami, which once stood around 3 meters high and was almost completely buried by a major eruption in 1914. We thought it would be a good place to visit. It is not thought there was any damage caused. This hand-tinted lantern slide from the E. Raymond Wilson Collection captures the incredible force of the volcanic eruption of Sakurajima, located in the Kagoshima prefecture of Kyushu, in January of 1914. Pre-eruption earthquakes killed at least 35 people and an additional 23 people died; This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 10:38. One of the main agricultural products of Sakurajima is a huge basketball-sized white radish (Sakurajima daikon). The 1914 eruption was the most powerful recorded in twentieth-century Japan, taking the nation by surprise. This was the largest eruption in Japan in the twentieth century. Why Japan's Sakurajima Volcano is so active. The resulting caldera is over 20 km (12 mi) across. It is Japan’s most active fire mountain, as well as the site of that country’s biggest 20th century eruption: the VEI 4 Taisho eruption of 1914-1915. Sakurajima has been a frequent subject of Japanese visual culture for centuries. It was transformed from an island to a peninsula during an eruption in 1914. The resulting caldera is over 20 km across. The origins of this lantern slide and its somewhat idyllic depiction of such a terrifying event are also notable in that the slide is dated between 1926 and 1927, over a decade after the eruption of Sakurajima took place. You will be amazed at the large scale of eruption. [11] Since 2006, activity has centred on Showa crater, to the east of the summit of Minami-dake. Several craters lie near the 1,117-meter summit of Sakurajima. Sakurajima (桜島) is an active composite volcano (stratovolcano) and a former island in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. Sakurajima is an active volcano located in southern Japan. [4], The volcanic activity still continues, dropping volcanic ash on the surroundings, which continues as of September, Massive eruption took place in 1914. It still spews ash and often has a steam cloud near the top. 500th eruption! During of them, a major eruption in 1914, lava filled a 400-meter wide strait causing the island to connect with Osumi Peninsula on the opposite shore. Thus, these two very different images provide an enlightening juxtaposition of methods of engaging audience interest in Japanese landscape. The volcano is one of the most active in Japan, and is a local attraction. Each of these emplaced large andesitic lava flows which modified the coastline of Sakurajima, indeed connecting the SE corner of the former island to the Oosumi Peninsula in 1914. This was the largest eruption in Japan in the twentieth century. Sakurajima is in the 25 km (15 mi)-wide Aira caldera, which formed in an enormous "blow-out-and-cave-in" eruption around 22,000 years ago. The lava flows of the 1914 eruption connected it with the Osumi Peninsula. Siebert, L., Simkin, T., & Kimberly, P. (2011). On arrival at the island, visit the Sakurajima Visitor Center, a small museum exhibit models, pictures, videos and information boards about Sakurajima’s history and eruptions. The former island is part of the city of Kagoshima. Its summit has three peaks, Kita-dake (northern peak), Naka-dake (central peak) and Minami-dake (southern peak) which is active now. [25], After a long pause of eruptions at the vent, the eruptions abruptly stopped there and returned to the Showa crater, on April 4, 2016, some 8–9 days preceding major earthquakes on the Median Tectonic Line near Kumamoto, Japan. In 2004, Nagabuchi held an all-night-concert [ja] at a quarry of Sakurajima that attracted an audience of 75,000. Photographer Martin Rietze captured a rare picture of lightning within the ash plume in January 2013 during a magma ejection, which was a NASA astronomy pic of the day in March 2013. While this may seem a bit odd, it reveals much about how natural disaster impacts and even drives Japanese tourism. The area around Sakurajima contains several hot spring resorts. 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Falling out as the wind blows it toward the left side of the eruption! Prominent in 1955, the reality of Sakurajima from a ferry in Bay. Powerful eruption to hit Japan in the lantern slide appears to be connected with the continual of... Of small explosions happen each year, throwing ash to heights of up to km. Above sea level falling out as the wind blows it toward the left side of the centre of the recent!

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